Footnotes, Endnotes and Textnotes

Introduction

Footnotes

In most cases, you will be expected to follow a prescribed style for footnotes. When you use the footnotes feature of a word processing program, the software will automatically position the footnotes at the bottom of the page, insert a horizontal line to separate footnotes from the text, continue a footnote on the next page if it is too long to fit, and automatically number the footnotes. Footnotes are usually single-spaced. It is a good idea to read the Help notes in the word processing program to understand how this feature works.

Endnotes

There is usually an endnotes feature in a word processing program. As with footnotes, if you add or delete endnotes, the remaining endnotes will be automatically renumbered. Endnotes are usually single-spaced. The endnote feature will automatically format the endnotes. Read the Help section in the word processing program pertaining to endnotes to understand how this feature works.

Textnotes

General Guidelines

There are a number of reference/style conventions for footnotes, endnotes, and textnotes. If you are supposed to follow a specific style manual or guide, then you must find a print or online guide. Prominent examples are the MLA (Modern Language Association) Style Manual (available at Amazon ISBN: 0873529774. See also http://www.mla.org/ and http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_mla.html) and The Chicago Manual of Style (available at Amazon ISBN: 0226104036. See also http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/cmosfaq/cmosfaq.html). There are also specialized guides like the American Psychological Association's.

Book Title Basic - Business Style

Book Title Basic - Academic Style

Author, book title, (place of publication: publisher, year of publication), page number [if reference is being made to a specific page].

Book Title with Edition Number

Author, book title, edition number [if not the first edition], publisher, place, year, page number.

Book Title with Subtitle

Author, book title: subtitle, edition number [if not the first edition], publisher, place, year, page number.

Book Title with Volume Number and Volume Title

Author, book title, volume number, volume title, edition number [if not the first edition], publisher, place, year, page number.

Book Title with Volume Number Alone

Author, book title, edition number [if not the first edition], publisher, place, year, volume number, page number. [style may be Vol. III, p. 197 or III, 197 or Vol. 5, pp. 681-684 or 5:681-684]

Book Title with Chapter Reference

Author, book title, publisher, place, year, chapter number, "chapter title" [if important], page number.

Selection from Collected Works of One Author

Author, "title of selection," book title, publisher, place, year, page number.

Selection in Anthology

Author of selection, "title of selection," in editor of anthology (ed.), book title, publisher, place, year, page number.

Article in Reference Work

Author [if known], "article title," name of reference work, edition number [if not the first edition], publisher [usually omitted], year, page number [may be omitted].

Article in Newspaper

Author [if known], "article title," name of newspaper, date, page number, column number.

Article in Magazine

Author [if known], "article title," name of magazine, date, page number.

Article in Journal

Author, "article title," title of journal [often abbreviated], series number [if given], volume number, issue number [if given], date, page number.

Quotation from CD-ROM

Author [if known], "article title" [if appropriate], title of work (CD-ROM), publisher [may be omitted], place of publication [may be omitted], year of publication, reference to location of quotation [if available].

Bulletin, Pamphlet, or Monograph

Author [if given], "article title" [if appropriate], title of work, series title and series number [if appropriate], volume number and issue number [if appropriate], sponsoring organization, place [may be omitted], date, page number.

Unpublished Dissertation or Thesis

Author, "title of thesis," doctoral dissertation OR master's thesis, name of academic institution, place, date, page number.

Quotation from Secondary Source

Author, book title, publisher, place, date, page number, quoted by OR cited by author, book title, publisher, place, date, page number.

Note Number

Indent the number .5 inch and type it as a superscript without a space after it or on as a number on the same line followed by a period and 1-2 spaces. The latter is often used in endnotes.

Names of Authors

Title of the Work

Publisher's Name

Place of Publication

Date of Publication

Page Numbers

Subsequent References